domingo, 3 de octubre de 2010

cultura de francia

Contenido [hide]
1 Idioma
2 Religión
2.1 catolicismo
2.2 Islam
2.3 Judaísmo
2.4 Budismo
2.5 Las sectas y nuevos movimientos religiosos
3 Regional de costumbres y tradiciones
Otras cuatro comunidades específicas
Sociales de clase 5
6 Familias y relaciones románticas
6.1 Estructura del hogar
7 Papel del Estado
7.1 Educación
7.2 Ministro de la Cultura
7.3 de la Academia francesa
7.4 El servicio militar
7.5 Trabajo y la política del empleo
7.6 Salud y bienestar social
8 Alimentación y estilo de vida
8.1 Alimentación y el alcohol
8.2 El tabaco y las drogas
8.3 Deportes y pasatiempos
8.4 Moda
8.5 Mascotas
9 Medios de Comunicación y Arte
9.1 Arte y museos
9.2 Música
9.3 Cine
9.4 de radiodifusión televisiva
9.5 Libros, periódicos y revistas
10 Arquitectura y vivienda
11 Transporte
12 días de fiesta
13 Véase también
14 Referencias
15 Notas
16 Enlaces externos
Idioma

Artículos principales: el idioma Inglés , Lenguas de Francia , y la política lingüística en Francia
La Academia francesa establece norma año oficial de la pureza del lenguaje , sin embargo, esta norma, que no sea obligatorio, es aún ocasionalmente ignorado por el propio Gobierno: por ejemplo, el ala izquierda del Gobierno de Lionel Jospin impulsó la feminización de los nombres de algunos funciones (ministro) mientras que la Academia empujó un poco más tradicional para el ministro.
Algunos-ha sido objeto de acción adoptadas por el Gobierno con el fin de promover la cultura francesa y el idioma Inglés. Por ejemplo, no existe un sistema de subvenciones y préstamos preferenciales para apoyar el cine francés . La Ley Toubon , del nombre del ministro de cultura conservadora que lo promovieron, que obliga a utilizar el francés en la publicidad dirigida al público en general. Tenga en cuenta que, contrariamente a algunas veces error encontrados en los medios de comunicación de habla inglesa, el Gobierno francés ni Regula El lenguaje usado por los particulares en entornos no comerciales, ni Eso hace que sea obligatoria con sede en Francia WWW sitios debería ser en francés.
Francia cuenta con muchas lenguas regionales, algunas de ellas muy diferente de la norma franceses como Breton y Alsacia . Algunas lenguas regionales son romances , como el francés, tales como el occitano . La lengua vasca no tiene relación alguna al francés y, en efecto, a "cualquier otra lengua en el mundo; área de las TIC extiende a ambos lados de la frontera entre el suroeste de Francia y el norte de España . Muchos de esos idiomas defensores entusiastas, sin embargo, la importancia real de las lenguas locales tema sigue siendo a Debate. En abril de 2001, el Ministro de Educación, Jack Lang , formalmente admitidos para eso es más de dos siglos, el poder político del Gobierno francés reprimidas lenguas regionales HAD, y anunció que la educación bilingüe sería, por primera vez, ser reconocido, y bilingüe los profesores o de reclutamiento en las escuelas públicas francesas.
Religión

Artículo principal: Religión en Francia
Francia es un laico país donde la libertad de pensamiento y de religión se conserva, en virtud de la 1789 Declaración de los Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano . La República Se basa en el principio "de la laicidad , que es la Libertad de Religión (Por ejemplo de agnosticismo y ateísmo ) impuesta por el Ferry leyes Jules Y La Ley de 1905 sobre la separación del Estado y la Iglesia , promulgada a partir de la Tercera República (1871-1940). A enero 2007 encuesta encontró que 51% de la población francesa describen a sí mismos como católicos, y sólo la mitad de los que están considerados en Dios decían -, el 31% como ateo, el 4% de musulmanes, los protestantes tienen un 3% y 1% como Judios. garantiza la libertad de religión de Francia como los Derechos Constitucionales y el Gobierno respeta este derecho en la práctica general. En la larga historia de conflictos violentos entre grupos dirigidos a romper las TIC Los Estados Partes en la Iglesia Católica a principios del siglo pasado y Compromiso de adopción de mantenimiento de un fuerte Totalmente secteur pública laica. [9]
Catolicismo
Artículo principal: Catolicismo Romano en Francia
La católica es la fe no siga considerarse la religión del estado , como lo era antes de la Revolución de 1789 y durante todo el, no republicana varios regímenes del siglo 19 (la Restauración , la Monarquía de Julio y el Segundo Imperio ). La división oficial católica de la Iglesia y el Estado ("La separación de Iglesia y Estado") Tuvo lugar en 1905, y réforme cette principales enfatiza el secularista y estado de ánimo clerical contra los franceses de los republicanos radicales de este período ".
A principios del siglo 20, Francia era un país principalmente rural conservadora católica con las costumbres, la meta de los Cien Años Desde entonces, el campo se ha convertido en despoblado, y la población se ha convertido en gran medida más secular. A diciembre 2006 la encuesta de Harris Interactive, publicado en The Financial Times , reveló que el 32% de los franceses población describían a sí mismos como agnósticos , un 32% como ateo y el 27% sólo se cree en "cualquier tipo de Dios o Ser Supremo. [10]
Islam
Artículo principal: Islam en Francia
After Catholicism, Islam is the second largest faith in France today, and the country has the largest Muslim population (in percentage) of any Western European country. This is a result of immigration and permanent family settlement in France, from the 1960s on, of groups from, principally, North Africa ( Morocco , Algeria , Tunisia ) and, to a lesser extent, other areas such as Turkey and West Africa . [ 11 ] While it is prohibited in France for the government census to collect data on religious beliefs, estimates and polls place the percentage of Muslims at between 4% and 7% [ 12 ] . The Muslim population in France has had to deal with many difficulties in terms of social and cultural integration into mainstream French society, stemming both from socioeconomic issues (unskilled jobs, low incomes, poor neighborhoods, etc.) and ethnic and religious issues (prejudice, concerns over "radical Islam", problems of integration into a secular country, etc.) that have been exemplified in recent years through civil unrest in working-class and immigrant suburbs (see, for example, 2005 civil unrest in France ) and legal/political issues (such as the " Islamic headscarf affair ").
Judaism
Main article: History of the Jews in France
The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600,000, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France, and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris , Marseille and Strasbourg .
The history of the Jews of France dates back over 2,000 years. In the early Middle Ages , France was a center of Jewish learning, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on. France was the first country in Europe to emancipate its Jewish population during the French Revolution , but, despite legal equality anti-Semitism remained an issue, as illustrated in the Dreyfus affair of the late 19th century. However, through the 1870 Décret Crémieux , France secured full citizenship for the Jews in then French-ruled Algeria . Despite the death of a quarter of all French Jews during the Holocaust , France currently has the largest Jewish population in Europe .
French Jews are mostly Sephardic and span a range of religious affiliations, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large segment of Jews who are entirely secular.
Buddhism
Main article: Buddhism in France
Buddhism is widely reported to be the fourth largest religion in France, after Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. France has over two hundred Buddhist meditation centers, including about twenty sizable retreat centers in rural areas. The Buddhist population mainly consists of Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants, with a substantial minority of native French converts and “sympathizers.” The rising popularity of Buddhism in France has been the subject of considerable discussion in the French media and academy in recent years.
Cults and new religious movements
France created in 2006 the first French parliamentary commission on cult activities which led to a report registering a number of cults considered as dangerous. Supporters of such movements have criticized the report on the grounds of the respect of religious freedom . Proponents of the measure contend that only dangerous cults have been listed as such, and state secularism insures religious freedom of France.
Regional customs and traditions

Modern France is the result of centuries of nation building and the acquisition and incorporation of a number of historical provinces and overseas colonies into its geographical and political structure. These regions all evolved with their own specific cultural and linguistic traditions in fashion, religious observance, regional language and accent, family structure, cuisine, leisure activities, industry, etc.
The evolution of the French state and culture, from the Renaissance to today, has however promoted a centralization of politics, media, and cultural production in and around Paris (and, to a lesser extent, around the other major urban centers), and the industrialization of the country in the twentieth century has led to a massive move of French people from the countryside to urban areas. At the end of the nineteenth century, around 50% of the French depended on the land for a living; today French farmers only make up 6-7%, while 73% live in cities. [ 13 ] Nineteenth century French literature abounds in scenes of provincial youth "coming up" to Paris to "make it" in the cultural, political or social scene of the capital (this scheme is frequent in the novels of Balzac ). Policies enacted by the French Third Republic also encouraged this displacement through mandatory military service, a centralized national educational system, and suppression of regional languages. While government policy and public debate in France in recent years has returned to a valorization of regional differences and a call for decentralization of certain aspects of the public sphere (sometimes with ethnic, racial or reactionary overtones), the history of regional displacement and the nature of the modern urban environment and of mass media and culture have made the preservation of a regional "sense of place or culture" in today's France extremely difficult.
The names of the historical French provinces — such as Brittany , Berry , Orléanais , Normandy , Languedoc , Lyonnais , Dauphiné , Champagne , Poitou , Guyenne and Gascony , Burgundy , Picardy , Provence , Touraine , Limousin , Auvergne , Béarn , Alsace , Flanders , Lorraine , Corsica , Savoy ... (please see individual articles for specifics about each regional culture) — are still used to designate natural, historical and cultural regions, and many of them appear in modern région or département names. These names are also used by the French in their self-identification of family origin. Regional identification is most pronounced today in cultures linked to non-French languages like Corsu , Català , Occitan , Alsatian , Basque and Brezhoneg ( Breton ), and some of these regions have promoted movements calling for some degree of regional autonomy, and, occasionally, national independence (see, for example, Breton nationalism and Corsica ).
There are huge differences in life style, socioeconomic status and world view between Paris and the provinces. The French often use the expression "la France profonde " ("Deep France", similar to " heartland ") to designate the profoundly "French" aspects of provincial towns, village life and rural agricultural culture, which escape the hegemony of Paris. The expression can however have a pejorative meaning, similar to the expression "le désert français" ("the French desert") used to describe a lack of acculturation of the provinces. Another expression, " terroir " is a French term originally used for wine and coffee to denote the special characteristics that geography bestowed upon these products. It can be very loosely translated as "a sense of place" which is embodied in certain qualities, and the sum of the effects that the local environment (especially the "soil") has had on the growth of the product. The use of the term has since been generalized to talk about many cultural products.
In addition to its metropolitan territory, France also consists of overseas departments made up of its former colonies of Guadeloupe , Martinique and French Guiana in the Caribbean , and Réunion in the Indian Ocean . (There also exist a number of " overseas collectivities and " overseas territories ". For a full discussion, see administrative divisions of France . Since 1982, following the French government 's policy of decentralisation , overseas departments have elected regional councils with powers similar to those of the regions of metropolitan France. As a result of a constitutional revision which occurred in 2003, these regions are now to be called overseas regions .) These overseas departments have the same political status as metropolitan departments and are integral parts of France, similar to how Hawaii is a state and an integral part of the United States , yet they also have specific cultural and linguistic traditions which set them apart. Certain elements of overseas culture have also been introduced to metropolitan culture (as, for example, the musical form the biguine ).
Industrialization, immigration and urbanization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have also created new socioeconomic regional communities in France, both urban (like Paris , Lyon , Villeurbanne , Lille , Marseille , etc.) and the suburban and working class hinterlands (like Seine-Saint-Denis ) of urban agglomerations (called variously banlieues (" suburbs ", sometimes qualified as "chic" or "pauvres") or les cités (" housing projects ") which have developed their own "sense of place" and local culture (much like the various boroughs of New York City or suburbs of Los Angeles ), as well as cultural identity.
Other specific communities

Paris has traditionally been associated with alternative, artistic or intellectual subcultures, many of which involved foreigners. Such subcultures include the " Bohemians " of the mid-nineteenth century, the Impressionists , artistic circles of the Belle époque (around such artists as Picasso and Alfred Jarry ), the Dadaists , Surrealists , the " Lost Generation " ( Hemingway , Gertrude Stein ) and the post-war "intellectuals" associated with Montparnasse ( Jean-Paul Sartre , Simone de Beauvoir ).
France has an estimated 280,000-340,000 Roma , generally known as Gitans , Tsiganes , Romanichels (slightly pejorative), Bohémiens , or Gens du voyage ("travellers").
There are gay and lesbian communities in the cities, particularly in the Paris metropolitan area (such as in Le Marais district of the capital). Although homosexuality is perhaps not as well tolerated in France as in Spain , Scandinavia , and the Benelux nations, surveys of the French public reveal a considerable shift in attitudes comparable to other Western European nations. As of 2001, 55% of the French consider homosexuality "an acceptable lifestyle." [ 14 ] The current mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoë , is gay. In 2006, an Ipsos survey shows that 62% support same-sex marriage, while 37% were opposed. 55% believed gay and lesbian couples should not have parenting rights, while 44% believe same-sex couples should be able to adopt. [ 15 ] See also LGBT rights in France .
Social class

Main article: Social class in France
Despite the egalitarian aspects of French society, French culture remains marked by social-economic class and by many class distinctions [ citation needed ] .
Families and romantic relationships

Household structure
Growing out of the values of the Catholic Church and rural communities, the basic unit of French society was traditionally held to be the family . [ 16 ] Over the twentieth century, the "traditional" family structure in France has evolved from extended families to, after World War II , nuclear families . Since the 1960s, marriages have decreased and divorces have increased in France, and divorce law and legal family status have evolved to reflect these social changes. [ 17 ]
According to INSEE figures, household and family composition in metropolitan France continues to evolve. Most significantly, from 1982 to 1999, single parent families have increased from 3.6% to 7.4%; there have also been increases in the number of unmarried couples , childless couples, and single men (from 8.5% to 12.5) and women (from 16.0% to 18.5%). Their analysis indicates that "one in three dwellings are occupied by a person living alone; one in four dwellings are occupied by a childless couple.." [2]
Voted by the French Parliament in November 1999 following some controversy, the pacte civil de solidarité ("civil pact of solidarity") commonly known as a PACS , is a form of civil union between two adults (same-sex or opposite-sex) for organizing their joint life. It brings rights and responsibilities, but less so than marriage . From a legal standpoint, a PACS is a "contract" drawn up between the two individuals, which is stamped and registered by the clerk of the court. Individuals who have registered a PACS are still considered "single" with regard to family status for some purposes, while they are increasingly considered in the same way as married couples are for other purposes. While it was pushed by the government of Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in 1998, it was also opposed, mostly by people on the right-wing who support traditionalist family values and who argued that PACS and the recognition of homosexual unions would be disastrous for French society.
However, same-sex marriage is not legally recognized in France.
Role of the State

The French state has traditionally played a key role in promoting and supporting culture through the educational, linguistic, cultural and economic policies of the government and through its promotion of national identity. Because of the closeness of this relationship, cultural changes in France are often linked to, or produce, political crisis. [ 18 ]
The relationship between the French state and culture is an old one. Under Louis XIII 's minister Richelieu , the independent Académie française came under state supervision and became an official organ of control over the French language and seventeenth-century literature. During Louis XIV 's reign, his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert brought French luxury industries, like textile and porcelain, under royal control and the architecture, furniture, fashion and etiquette of the royal court (particularly at the Château de Versailles ) became the preeminent model of noble culture in France (and, to a great degree, throughout Europe) during the latter half of the seventeenth century.
At times, French state policies have sought to unify the country around certain cultural norms, while at other times they have promoted regional differences within a heterogeneous French identity. The unifying effect was particularly true of the "radical period"" of the French Third Republic which fought regionalisms (including regional languages), supported anti-clericalism and a strict separation of church from state (including education) and actively promoted national identity, thus converting (as the historian Eugen Weber has put it) a "country of peasants into a nation of Frenchmen". The Vichy Regime , on the other hand, promoted regional "folk" traditions.
The cultural policies of the (current) French Fifth Republic have been varied, but a consensus seems to exist around the need for preservation of French regionalisms (such as food and language) as long as these don't undermine national identity. Meanwhile, the French state remains ambivalent over the integration into "French" culture of cultural traditions from recent immigrant groups and from foreign cultures, particularly American culture (movies, music, fashion, fast food, language, etc.). There also exists a certain fear over the perceived loss of French identity and culture in the European system and under American "cultural hegemony".
Education
Main article: Education in France
International educational scores (1995)
(13-year-old's average score, TIMSS
Trends in International Math and Science Study, 1995)
Countries:
(sample) Global
rank Maths Science
Puntuación Puesto Puntuación Puesto
Singapore 1 643 1 607 1
Japón 2 605 3 571 3
South Korea 3 607 2 565 4
República Checa 4 564 6 574 2
Belgium (F) 5 565 5 550 11
Hong Kong 6 588 4 522 24
Bulgaria 7 540 11 565 5
Netherlands 8 541 9 560 6
Slovenia 9 541 10 560 7
Austria 10 539 12 558 8
Eslovaquia 11 547 7 544 13
Hungría 12 537 14 554 9
Australia 13 530 16 545 12
Rusia 14 535 15 538 14
Switzerland 15 545 8 522 25
Ireland 16 527 17 538 15
Canadá 17 527 18 531 18
England 18 506 25 552 10
Sweden 19 519 22 535 16
Thailand 20 522 20 525 21
Israel 21 522 21 524 23
Alemania 22 509 23 531 19
Francia 23 538 13 498 28
De los Estados Unidos 24 500 28 534 17
New Zealand 25 508 24 525 22
Norway 26 503 26 527 20
Belgium (W) 27 526 19 471 36
Denmark 28 502 27 478 34
Source: TIMSS data, in The Economist March 29th, 1997, p.25
The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. It is divided into three different stages:
primary education ( enseignement primaire ); secondary education ( collège and lycée ); and higher education ( l'université ).
Primary and secondary education is predominantly public (private schools also exist, in particular a strong nationwide network of primary and secondary Catholic education ), while higher education has both public and private elements. At the end of secondary education, students take the baccalauréat exam, which allows them to pursue higher education. The baccalauréat pass rate in 1999 was 78.3%.
In 1999–2000, educational spending amounted to 7% of the French GDP and 37% of the national budget.
Since the Jules Ferry laws of 1881-2, named after the then Minister of Public Instruction, all state-funded schools, including universities, are independent from the (Roman Catholic) Church. Education in these institutions is free. Non-secular institutions are allowed to organize education as well. The French educational system differs strongly from Northern-European and American systems in that it stresses the importance of partaking in a society as opposed to being responsibly independent.
Secular educational policy has become critical in recent issues of French multiculturalism, as in the " affair of the Islamic headscarf ".
Minister of Culture
Main article: Minister of Culture (France)
The Minister of Culture is, in the Government of France , the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional "maisons de culture" (culture centres). The Ministry of Culture is located on the Palais Royal in Paris .
The modern post of Minister of Culture was created by Charles de Gaulle in 1959 and the first Minister was the writer André Malraux . Malraux was responsible for realizing the goals of the "droit à la culture" ("the right to culture") -- an idea which had been incorporated in the French constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) -- by democratizing access to culture , while also achieving the Gaullist aim of elevating the "grandeur" ("greatness") of post-war France. To this end, he created numerous regional cultural centres throughout France and actively sponsored the arts. Malraux's artistic tastes included the modern arts and the avant-garde, but on the whole he remained conservative.
The Ministry of Jacques Toubon was notable for a number of laws (the " Toubon Laws ") enacted for the preservation of the French language , both in advertisements (all ads must include a French translation of foreign words) and on the radio (40% of songs on French radio stations must be in French), ostensibly in reaction to the presence of English.
Académie française
Main article: Académie française
The Académie française , or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language . The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu , the chief minister to King Louis XIII . Suppressed in 1793 during the French Revolution , it was restored in 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte (the Académie considers itself having been suspended, not suppressed, during the revolution). It is the oldest of the five académies of the Institut de France .
The Académie consists of forty members, known as immortels (immortals). New members are elected by the members of the Académie itself. Académicians hold office for life, but they may be removed for misconduct. The body has the task of acting as an official authority on the language; it is charged with publishing an official dictionary of the language. Its rulings, however, are only advisory; not binding on either the public or the government.
Military service
Until 1996, France had compulsory military service of young men. This has been credited by historians for further promoting a unified national identity and by breaking down regional isolationism [ citation needed ] .
Labor and employment policy
In France the first labour laws were Waldeck Rousseau 's laws passed in 1884. Between 1936 and 1938 the Popular Front enacted a law mandating 12 days (2 weeks) each year of paid vacation for workers, and a law limiting the work week to 40 hours, excluding overtime. The Grenelle accords negotiated on May 25 and 26th in the middle of the May 1968 crisis, reduced the working week to 44 hours and created trade union sections in each enterprise. [ 19 ] The minimum wage was also increased by 25%. [ 20 ] In 2000 Lionel Jospin 's government then enacted the 35-hour workweek , down from 39 hours. Five years later, conservative prime minister Dominique de Villepin enacted the New Employment Contract (CNE). Addressing the demands of employers asking for more flexibility in French labour laws, the CNE sparked criticism from trade unions and opponents claiming it was lending favour to contingent work . In 2006 he then attempted to pass the First Employment Contract (CPE) through a vote by emergency procedure, but that it was met by students and unions' protests . President Jacques Chirac finally had no choice but to repeal it.
Healthcare and social welfare
The French are profoundly committed to the public healthcare system (called "sécurité sociale") and to their "pay-as-you-go" social welfare system.
In 1998, 75% of health payments in France were paid through the public healthcare system. Since 27 July 1999, France has a universal medical coverage for permanent residents in France (stable residence for more than three months).
Food and lifestyle

See also: French cuisine
Food and alcohol
Traditional French culture places a high priority on the enjoyment of food. French cuisine was codified in the 20th century by Georges Auguste Escoffier to become the modern version of haute cuisine . Escoffier's major work, however, left out much of the regional character to be found in the provinces of France. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to bring people to the countryside during the 20th century and beyond, to sample this rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of France. Basque cuisine has also been a great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France.
Ingredients and dishes vary by region (see regional cuisine ). There are many significant regional dishes that have become both national and regional. Many dishes that were once regional, however, have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. Cheese (see list of French cheeses ) and wine (see French wine ) are also a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles both regionally and nationally with their many variations and Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws ( lentils from Le Puy-en-Velay also have an AOC status). Another French product of special note is the Charolais cattle .


A sweet crêpe . Crêpes are originally from Brittany
The French typically eat only a simple breakfast ("petit déjeuner") (of, say, coffee or tea, served traditionally in a large handleless "bol" (bowl) and bread, breakfast pastries ( croissants ), or yogurt). Lunch ("déjeuner") and dinner ("dîner") are the main meals of the day. Formal four course meals consist of a starter course ("entrée"), a main course ("plat principal") followed by a salad course, and finally a cheese and/or a dessert course. While French cuisine is often associated with rich desserts, in most homes dessert consists of only a fruit or yogurt.
Food shopping in France was formerly done almost daily in small local shops and markets, but the arrival of the supermarket and the even larger "hypermarchés" (large-surface distributors) in France have disrupted this tradition. With depopulation of the countryside, many towns have been forced to close shops and markets.
Rates of obesity and heart disease in France have traditionally been lower than in other north-western European countries. This is sometimes called the " French paradox " (see, for example, Mireille Guiliano's 2006 book French Women Don't Get Fat ). French cuisine and eating habits have however come under great pressure in recent years from modern " fast food ", American products and the new global agricultural industry (including genetically modified organisms ). While French youth culture has gravitated toward fast food and American eating habits (with an attendant rise in obesity), the French in general have remained committed to preserving certain elements of their food culture through such activities as including programs of "taste acquisition" in their public schools, by the use of the " appellation d'origine contrôlée " laws, and by state and European subsides to the French agricultural industry. Emblematic of these tensions is the work of José Bové , who founded, in 1987, the Confédération Paysanne, an agricultural union that places its highest political values on humans and the environment, promotes organic farming and opposes genetically modified organisms; Bové's most famous protest was the dismantling of a McDonald's franchise in Millau ( Aveyron ), in 1999.
In France, cutlery is used in the continental manner (with the fork in the left hand, prongs facing down and the knife in the right hand). French etiquette prohibits the placing of hands below the table.
The legal drinking age is officially 18 (see Legal drinking age ).
France is one of the oldest wine - producing regions of Europe . France now produces the most wine by value in the world (although Italy rivals it by volume and Spain has more land under cultivation for wine grapes). Bordeaux wine , Bourgogne wine and Champagne are important agricultural products.
Tobacco and drugs
The cigarette smoking age is 18 years. According to a widespread cliché, smoking has been part of French culture — actually figures indicate that in terms of consumption per capita, France is only the 60th country out of 121.
France, from 1 February 2007, tightened the existing ban on smoking in public places found in the 1991 Évin law: Law n°91-32 of 10 January, 1991 , containing a variety of measures against alcoholism and tobacco consumption.
Smoking is now banned in all public places (stations, museums, etc.); an exception exists for special smoking rooms fulfilling drastic conditions, see below. A special exemption was made for cafés and restaurants, clubs, casinos, bars, etc. which ended, 1 January 2008. [ 21 ] Opinion polls suggest 70% of people support the ban. [ 22 ] Previously, under the former implementation rules of the 1991 Évin law, restaurants, cafés etc. just had to provide smoking and non-smoking sections, which in practice were often not well separated.
Under the new regulations, smoking rooms are allowed, but are subjected to very strict conditions: they may occupy at most 20% of the total floor space of the establishment and their size may not be more than 35 m²; they need to be equipped with separate ventilation which replaces the full volume of air ten times per hour; the air pressure of the smoking room must constantly be lower than the pressure in the contiguous rooms; they have doors that close automatically; no service can be provided in the smoking rooms; cleaning and maintenance personnel may enter the room only one hour after it was last used for smoking.
Popular French cigarette brands include Gauloises and Gitanes .
The possession, sale and use of cannabis (predominantly Moroccan hashish ) is illegal in France. Since 1 March 1994, the penalties for cannabis use are from two months to a year and/or a fine, while possession, cultivation or trafficking of the drug can be punished much more severely, up to ten years. According to a 1992 survey by SOFRES, 4.7 million French people ages 12–44 have at one time smoked cannabis. [3]
Sports and hobbies
Main article: Sport in France
The French "national" sport is football (soccer) , colloquially called 'le foot' (see Football in France ). The most-watched sports in France are football (soccer) , rugby union , basketball , cycling , sailing and tennis . France is notable for holding (and winning) the football World Cup in 1998, for holding the annual cycling race Tour de France , and the tennis Grand Slam tournament Roland Garros , or the French Open . Sport is encouraged in school, and local sports clubs receive financial support from the local governments. While football (soccer) is definitely the most popular, rugby union and rugby league takes dominance in the southwest, especially around the city of Toulouse (see Rugby union in France and Rugby league in France )
The modern Olympics was invented in France, in 1894.
Professional sailing in France is centred on singlehanded/shorthanded ocean racing with the pinnacle of this branch of the sport being the Vendee Globe singlehanded around the world race which starts every 4 years from the French Atlantic coast. Other significant events include the Solitaire du Figaro, Mini Transat 6.50 , Tour de France a Voile and Route de Rhum transatlantic race. France has been a regular competitor in the America's Cup since the 1970s.
Other important sports include:


People playing Pétanque next to the beach at Nice, France
Grand Prix Racing ( Formula 1 ) - invented in France in 1946
Pétanque - the international federation is recognized by the IOC . [4] [5] .
Fencing - fencing leads the list of sports for which gold medals were won for France at summer Olympics (see France at the Olympics ).
Parkour - developed in France, parkour ( "art du déplacement" ) is a physical activity that resembles self-defense or martial arts .
Babyfoot (table football) - a very popular pastime in bars and in homes in France, and the French are the predominant winners of worldwide table football competitions.
Kite-surf
Like other cultural areas in France, sport is overseen by a government ministry, the Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports (France) which is in charge of national and public sport associations, youth affairs, public sports centers and national stadia (like the Stade de France ).
Fashion
Main article: French fashion
Along with Milan , London and New York , Paris is sometimes called the "fashion capital of the world". The association of France with fashion ( French : la mode ) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV [ 23 ] when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe.
Francia renovado el dominio TIC de la moda de alta ( francés : alta costura de alta costura de oro) de la industria en los años 1860-1960 a través del establecimiento de la Gran diseñador de Casa, La prensa de moda ( Vogue fue fundada en 1892, que fue fundada en 1945) y la moda muestra . El primer modisto parisino moderna Generalmente considerado casa es el trabajo del inglés Charles Frederick Worth, que dominó la industria desde 1.858 hasta 1895. [24] En los inicios del siglo XX, la industria se expandió a través de casas de moda parisinos como son La Casa de Chanel (que Llegó a la fama por primera vez en 1925) y Balenciaga (fundada por un español en 1937). En el año posterior a la guerra, la moda a través del retorno demora a la fama de Christian Dior 's famoso "New Look" en 1947, ya través de las casas de Pierre Balmain y Hubert de Givenchy (inaugurado en 1952). En la década de 1960, "alta costura" de la leva Bajo las críticas de la cultura juvenil de Francia, mientras que diseñadores como Yves Saint Laurent rompió con lo establecido moda normas de alta con el lanzamiento de prêt-à-porter (listo para usar ") de líneas y ampliación de moda francesa de fabricación de masas de entrada y comercialización. [25] otras innovaciones fueron realizadas por Paco Rabanne y Pierre Cardin . Con un mayor énfasis en la comercialización y fabricación, las nuevas tendencias se establecieron en los años 70 y 80 por Sonia Rykiel , Thierry Mugler , Claude Montana , Jean Paul Gaultier y Christian Lacroix . La década de 1990 vio a un conglomerado de muchas casas de moda francesa Bajo gigantes de lujo y multinacionales como LVMH .
Desde la década de 1960, la industria de la moda de Francia ha sido objeto de aumento de la competencia de Londres, Nueva York, Milán y Tokio, y los franceses han ADOPTADO cada vez más extranjeros (particularmente estadounidenses) de moda (como jeans, zapatos tenis). Sin embargo, muchos diseñadores extranjeros "siguen tratando de hacer su carrera en Francia.
Mascotas
En 2006, el 52% de los hogares franceses por lo menos uno tenía mascotas [26] : 9.700.000 gatos , 8,8 millones de perros , 2,3 millones de roedores , 8 millones de aves , y 28 millones de peces .
Medios de Comunicación y Arte

Arte y museos
Artículo principal: el arte francés
Las primeras pinturas de Francia son los que desde los tiempos prehistóricos, pintado en las cuevas de Lascaux más de 10.000 años atrás también. El arte floreció hace 1.200 años ya, en tiempos de Carlomagno , Como se puede observar en la mano y la mano hace muchos libros ilustrados de una planificación.
Pintores clásicos del siglo 17 en Francia Nicolas Poussin y Claudio de Lorena . La "durante el siglo 18 rococó estilo surgió como una continuación de la frívola barroco estilo. Los famosos Pintores La mayoría de las Fueron era Antoine Watteau , François Boucher y Jean-Honoré Fragonard . En El fin de siglo, Jacques-Louis David fue el pintor más influyente de El Neoclasicismo .
Géricault y Delacroix Fueron los pintores más importantes de El Romanticismo . Posteriormente, los pintores más realista, que describe la naturaleza ( la Escuela de Barbizon ). El movimiento realista dirigida por WS Courbet y Honoré Daumier . Impresionismo fue desarrollado en Francia por artistas como Claude Monet , Edgar Degas , Pierre-Auguste Renoir y Camille Pissarro . A la vuelta del siglo, Francia se había convertido más que nunca el centro de arte innovador. El español Pablo Picasso de la leva a Francia, al igual que muchos otros artistas extranjeros, para desplegar el talento histórico en las próximas décadas existe. Toulouse-Lautrec , Gauguin y Cézanne la pintura entonces. cubismo ya une vanguardista movimiento nacido en París, en El Principio Del siglo 20.
El Louvre de París es uno de los mayores y la mayoría de los museos de arte más famosos en el mundo, creado por el revolucionario nuevo régimen en 1793 en el Palacio Real de forma. Contiene gran cantidad de arte de artistas franceses y otros, por ejemplo, La Mona Lisa , de Leonardo da Vinci , y el griego clásico Venus de Milo y antiguas obras de arte y cultura de Egipto y Oriente Medio.
Música
Artículo principal: Música de Francia
Francia cuentan con una amplia variedad de las comunidades indígenas la música popular ", así como estilos Jugado por inmigrantes de África , América Latina y Asia . En el ámbito de la música clásica , Francia se ha producido una serie de legendarios compositores como Gabriel Fauré , mientras que la música pop moderno ha visto el surgimiento de los populares de hip hop francés , francés de rock , techno / funk , y turntablists djs /.
Creado La Francia Festival de Música (Lugar: por primera vez en 1982), un festival de música, que se ha convertido sincera en todo el mundo. Se necesita todo lugar el 21 de junio un día de verano.
Cine
Artículo principal: Cine de Francia
Televisión
Artículo principal: Televisión en Francia
Libros, periódicos y revistas
Artículos principales: medios de comunicación franceses y la literatura francesa
Francia tiene la reputación de ser tiene "cultura literaria" [27] , y esto reforzado por la imagen es tal cosa como la importancia de la literatura francesa en El sistema francés para la Educación, la atención por los medios de comunicación franceses al francés ferias del libro y el libro de premios ( Al igual que el Premio Goncourt , premio Renaudot de oro Premio Femina ) y por el éxito popular de la (tren) literario de televisión " Apóstrofos "(organizada por Bernard Pivot ). Esta imagen no obstante, década de 1980 las cifras mostraron que los franceses Eso es un 50% menos utilizados y de los libros agotados prestan las bibliotecas 01.12 con la frecuencia que los británicos. [ cita requerida ]
Aunque la tasa de alfabetización oficial de Francia es de 99%, algunas estimaciones han puesto analfabetismo funcional tiene entre 10% y 20% de la población adulta (y de alta en la población reclusa). [28]
Mientras lee un Restos pasatiempo favorito de los jóvenes franceses de hoy, las encuestas muestran que ha disminuido en importancia en comparación a la música, televisión, deportes y otras actividades. [28] La crisis de las publicaciones académicas, ha afectado a aussi Francia (véase, por ejemplo, El Financiero Dificultades de la Presses Universitaires de France (PUF), primero Francia editorial académica, en el decenio de 1990). [29]
Sigue en el gusto literario de Francia en la novela centrada (26,4% de las ventas de libros en 1997), aunque los franceses leer más ensayos no-ficción y los libros fueron los temas de actualidad británica que el oro estadounidenses. [30] novelas contemporáneas, incluyendo traducciones al francés de los extranjeros novelas, encabezan la lista (13% del total de libros vendidos), seguido por las novelas sentimentales (4,1%), el detective y la ficción de espionaje (3,7%), "clásico" de la literatura (3,5%), ciencia ficción y de terror (1,3%) y ficción erótica (0,2%). [31] Aproximadamente el 30% de toda la ficción vendidos en Francia hoy se traduce de Français (autores como William Boyd , John Le Carré , Ian McEwan , Paul Auster y Douglas Kennedy son bien recibidos). [32 ]
Un subconjunto importante del libro está sucio libros de historietas (Por lo general Franco-belga cómic como Tintín y Asterix ) que se publican en un formato de tapa dura grande, cómics representa el 4% de las ventas de libros en 1997 [33] . Glosario artistas han hecho el líder en el país ha novela gráfica , como [32] Los ejércitos de Francia y Angulema Festival Internacional de Comics , historietas festival de Europa preeminente.
Al igual que otras zonas de la cultura francesa, el libro de la cultura se ve influenciada, en parte, por el Estado, en particular por el "Departamento de libro y la lectura" del Ministerio de Cultura, que supervisa el "Centre National du Livre (Nacional del Libro Centro). El Ministerio francés de Industria desempeña un papel en el control de precios aussi. Por último, el IVA para los libros y productos culturales en Francia, otro está en el tipo reducido del 5,5%, que es también la de alimentos y otras necesidades ( ver aquí ).
En términos de periodismo en Francia, la prensa regional (ver lista de periódicos en Francia ) se ha convertido en más que importantes diarios nacionales (tales como Le Monde y Le Figaro ) Durante el siglo pasado: en 1939, los diarios nacionales fueron de 2 / 3 de la mercado de los diarios, mientras que hoy son menos de 1 / 4. [34] El mercado de las revistas está dominado actualmente por los listados de TV revistas [35] seguido de revistas tales como Le Nouvel Observateur , L'Express y Le Point .
Arquitectura y vivienda

Artículo principal: arquitectura francesa
Transporte

Artículo principal: Transporte en Francia
Hay diferencias significativas en los estilos de vida con respecto al transporte entre las zonas urbanizadas muy tales como París , y pueblos pequeños y zonas rurales. En París , y en extensiones menores en otras grandes ciudades, los hogares muchos no años propio coche y simplemente el uso eficiente de transporte masivo . El tópico sobre el té parisino es Hora Punta En El Metro subterráneo. Sin embargo, fuera de dichas zonas, la propiedad de uno o más buses es estándar, especialmente para hogares con niños.
El TGV de alta velocidad de la red ferroviaria, trenes de alta velocidad es un transporte ferroviario rápido reservas VARIOS ¿Qué zonas del país y se autofinancian. Hay planes para llegar a la mayoría de acciones de Francia y muchos otros destinos en Europa en los próximos años. Los servicios ferroviarios a los principales destinos son puntuales y frecuentes.
Vacaciones

Artículo principal: Días festivos en Francia
A pesar de los principios de laicidad y la separación de la iglesia de Los crepes de estado, festivos y vacaciones escolares en Francia siga la Iglesia Católica Romana general calendario religioso (incluyendo Semana Santa , Navidad , Día de la Ascensión , Pentecostés , la Asunción de María , el Día de Todos los Santos , etc) .. Día del Trabajo y la Fiesta Nacional son las vacaciones de negocio determinado únicamente por la ley del Gobierno; Las fiestas Otros son otorgados por convenio colectivo (acuerdo entre los empleadores y los empleados de la Unión) o por Acuerdo del uso.
Los cinco períodos de vacaciones escolares du pública el año [36] son los siguientes:
La fiesta de Todos los Santos ( Día de Todos los Santos ) - una semana y media de partida hacia el final de octubre.
Las vacaciones de Navidad ( Navidad ) - dos semanas, terminando después de Año Nuevo .
Las vacaciones de invierno ( invierno ) - dos semanas en febrero y marzo.
Las vacaciones de primavera ( primavera ), antes de las vacaciones de Pascua ( Semana Santa ) - dos semanas en abril y mayo.
Las vacaciones de verano ( verano ), o días festivos (literalmente: grandes fiestas) - con dos meses de julio y agosto.
El 1 de mayo, Día del Trabajo (Fiesta del Trabajo) Los franceses dan flores de lirio de los valles entre sí.
El día de fiesta nacional (llamado Día de la Bastilla en francés) está en el 14 de julio. desfiles militares, llamado Set Fashion Show 14 de julio , se llevan a cabo, la más grande del Campos Elíseos la avenida de París, delante de El Presidente de la república .
El 2 de noviembre, Día de los Difuntos (El Día de los Muertos), los franceses Tradicionalmente Traiga crisantemos a las tumbas de los difuntos miembros de la familia.
El 11 de noviembre, Día del Recuerdo (Día del Recuerdo) es un feriado oficial.
Navidad se celebra generalmente en Francia en la víspera de Navidad con una comida tradicional (platos típicos incluyen ostras , salchicha blanca y el tronco de Navidad ), mediante la apertura de regalos y por la asistencia a la misa de medianoche (incluso entre los católicos que no esperan ninguna iglesia de Otros Tiempos Año).
Candelaria (La Chandeleur) se celebra con panqueques . El dicho popular es que si el cocinero voltear una tortilla sin ayuda canadienses con una esquina en la otra mano, la familia es la seguridad de la prosperidad en el próximo año.
La anglo-sajón y americano de vacaciones de Halloween ha crecido en popularidad siguientes TIC Introducción A mediados de la década de 1990 por las asociaciones de Comercio. El crecimiento parece haberse estancado "durante los siguientes diez años.
Véase también

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